Samuel Crompton

Samuel Crompton (3 December 1753 26 June 1827) was an English inventor and pioneer of the spinning industry. Building on the work of James Hargreaves and Richard Arkwright he invented the spinning mule, a machine that revolutionized the industry worldwide.
Samuel Crompton was born in 10 Firwood Fold, Bolton, Lancashire to George and Betty Crompton (nee Elizabeth Holt of Turton). His father was a caretaker at nearby Hall i' th' Wood. Samuel had two younger sisters. While he was a boy he lost his father and had to contribute to the family resources by spinning yarn, learning to spin on James Hargreaves's spinning jenny. The deficiencies of the Jenny imbued him with the idea of devising something better, which he worked on in secret for five or six years. The effort absorbed all his spare time and money, including that which he earned by playing the violin at the Bolton theatre.
On 16 February 1780 at Bolton Parish Church, Crompton married Mary Pimlott (or Pimbley). They had eight children including George Crompton (born 8 January 1781), who followed in the family business.
The mule-jenny twisted the rovings using rollers in the manner of Arkwright's frame, while the spindle carriage moved back and forth 54 inches to stretch the thread, and then to gather it in the spinning spindles in the manner of Hargreaves jenny. The mule's importance was that it could spin thread better than could be done by hand, which led to ever finer thread. Coarse thread (40s) sold for 14 shillings per pound whilst (80s) spun on his mule sold at 42 shillings a pound.
As the mule was unpatented others soon manufactured it. The machine was constructed in iron, power was applied to assist the inward motion in 1790 and by 1834 it was fully automatic or self-acting. A survey in 1812 showed there were between 4 and 5 million mule spindles in use. Crompton received no royalties for his invention.